Lesson Summary 

Define root note, interval, and semi-tone.


Frequency - The number of cycles per unit time.  The SI unit for frequency is hertz (Hz), named after the German physicist Heinrich Hertz; 1 Hz means that an event repeats once per second. Designated by a lowercase f.

Hertz - The unit used to represent frequency (Hz)

Pitch - A particular frequency of sound used in a musical context.
Note - A named pitch, in western musical notation we knows these as A, B, C, D, E, F, and G.
Semitone - The smallest audible change in western musical notation. 
Sharp - Added to a note to indicate one semitone above the current note.  Represented visually by a #.
Flat -  Added to a note to indicate one semitone below the current note. Represented visually by a b. 
Octave -  The interval between one musical pitch and another with half or double its frequency. A440 is one octave above A220 and and octave below A880. 
Enharmonic equivalent -  Two notes that share the same pitch.  An example would be Eb and D#. Eb is one semitone flat (lower) than E and D# is one semitone sharp (higher) than D. 
Note value - Temporal information associated with a note. 
Interval - the difference between two pitches. In western notation they are referenced ascending by 1 semitone as follows: Unison (Tonic, Root), Minor 2nd, Major 2nd, Minor 3rd, Major 3rd,  Fourth, Tritone (Augmented Fourth, Diminished Fifth), Perfect Fifth, Minor 6th, Major 6th, Minor 7th, Major 7th, Octave. 
A440 - the musical note A above middle C, serves as a general tuning standard for musical pitch and has a frequency of 440 Hz.
Logarithm -  the logarithm of a number is the exponent to which another fixed value, the base, must be raised to produce that number. For example, the logarithm of 1000 to base 10 is 3, because 10 to the power 3 is 1000: 1000 = 10 × 10 × 10 = 10^3.
Equal Temperament - The system of tuning, in which every pair of adjacent notes (semitone) has an identical frequency ratio. Since pitch is perceived as the logarithm of frequency, this means that the "distance" from every note to its semitone is the same for every note.  Western musical notation uses twelve tone equal temperament.
Example: The fourth of an A note is D.  D is 5 semitones up from A so for A440 we can find our D frequency by multiplying 440 by 2 to the power of 5/12.  

The Werkstatt features 13 buttons that represent all notes in a twelve tone equal temperament tuning system plus an octave button.